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Israel

The State of Israel does not have a formal Constitution. Israel’s Constitutional Framework is composed by the Declaration of Independence1, 1948, the Law of return, 1950, as amended, The Jewish Agency (Status) Law of the World Zionist Organization, 1952, and some basic laws, as the Knesset (1958), Israel Lands, 1960, The President of the State, 1964, The Government, 1968, The State Economy, 1975, Israel Defense Forces, 1976, The Judicature Law, 1984, The State Comptroller, 1988, Human Dignity and Freedom, 1992 and Freedom of Occupation, 1992.

With the principal Constitutional Laws passed by the Twelfth Knesset through the efforts of the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee, which secures the Civil Rights, it is settled in the Prevention of Environmental Hazards Law2 that: “The law establishes the individual's right to protect his legitimate interests from environmental hazards. The law also enables legal action in this matter by a group of residents with a common interest. Associations whose principal purpose is environmental protection can also take action. Until now, the protection of the individual or a group of citizens was entirely dependent on the good will of the state authorities. Anyone who has been harmed, or is about to be harmed by an environmental hazard is entitled to petition for a court order enjoining anyone causing the hazard to desist from the activity producing the environmental hazard and to take all necessary action in order that the hazard cease or not recur. The court must take into account the balance of interest prior to issuing the order. For example, should the environmental hazard be caused by existing large industrial enterprises, it is necessary to take into account the extent of the investment and the economic damage that will be caused, as against the damage being caused by the public. [Prevention of Environmental Hazards Law (Civil Claims), 5752-1992].”

Environmental issues are regulated by specific legislation and environmental indicators that can be found on the Ministry of Environmental Protection’s website.





1. The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel and others Israel’s Constitutional Framework components can be accessed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ website.
2. The Prevention of Environmental Hazards Law can be found on the Government's website.