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Indonesia

  • Constitution of Indonesia, 19451

Article 33 of the Constitution of Indonesia, 1945 (with its amendments until 2002) states the following:

“Article 33 […] (3) The land, the waters and the natural resources within shall be under the powers of the State and shall be used to the greatest benefit of the people.

(4) The organisation of the national economy shall be conducted on the basis of economic democracy upholding the principles of togetherness, efficiency with justice, continuity, environmental perspective, self-sufficiency, and keeping a balance in the progress and unity of the national economy.”

The Environmental Management Act, 1997, states in its 5th Article that:
1. “Every person has the same right to an environment which is good and healthy
2. Every person has the right to environmental information which is related to environmental management roles.
3. Every person has the right to play a role in the scheme of environmental management in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.”

And its 6th Article states that “every person is obliged to preserve the continuity of environmental functions and protect and combat environmental pollution and damage”.





1. The Constitution of Indonesia and other laws can be found on the Republic's official website.