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China

  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China, 1954
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China, 1975
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China, 19821

Since the first text of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982, the following articles cover environment protection and natural resources, included in the Chapter 1 on General Principles.

“Article 9 All mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches, and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is, by the whole people, with the exception of the forest, mountains, grasslands and unreclaimed land and beaches that are owned by collectives in accordance with the law. The state ensures the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants. Appropriation or damaging natural resources by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited.”

“Article 26 The State protects and improves the environment in which people live and the ecological environment. It prevents and controls pollution and other public hazards.”

In accordance to the Constitution, laws, regulations and policies on environment and relative issues were promulgated in various fields, such as Marine Environment, Forestry and Water.





1. The original translation of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (1982) and its amendments until 2004 is provided by the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China's website.