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South Sudan
  • Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan1, 2005
  • Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan2, 2011

The Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan, 2005 states in its 44th Article:
(1) “Every person shall have the right to a clean and healthy environment.
(2) Every person shall have the right to have the environment protected for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative action and other measures that:
(a) prevent pollution and ecological degradations;
(b) promote conservation; and
(c) Secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting rational economic and social development so as to protect genetic stability and bio-diversity of Southern Sudan.”
(3) All levels of government in Southern Sudan shall promote energy policies that will ensure that the basic needs of the people are met while protecting and preserving the environment.”
Protection of the environment and conservation of natural resources is listed as a duty of citizens.

The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011, declares in its Preamble the People of South Sudan “conscious of the need to manage [their] natural resources sustainably and efficiently for the benefit of the present and future generations and to eradicate poverty and attain the Millennium Development Goals.” It also resumes the dispositions of the precedent Constitution and adds in its 41st Article the “obligation to protect the environment for the benefit of present and future generations.”





1. The Interim Constitution of South Sudan, 2005, is available on the Center for Human Rights' website.
2. The Transitional Constitution of South Sudan, 2011, is available on the database http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en.