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Namibia
  • Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, 1990

The Constitution of Namibia1 of 1990 addresses environmental protection in several key provisions. Article 91 (c) gives the Ombudsman legal power to investigate complaints related to over-exploitation of natural resources and the degradation of eco-systems.
Article 95 obliges the State to protect the environment especially against dumping or recycling of foreign toxic waste. It stipulates the promotion of human welfare through the adoption of policies for the maintenance of eco-systems and biodiversity and for the sustainable utilization of natural resources for present and future generations.
Article 44 is the constitutional link to international environmental law. It states that Namibia shall defer to international law and binding agreements in cases where relevant provisions are not made by the Constitution.

The Environmental Management Act of 2007 establishes the decision-making principles for environmental matters and the sustainable management of natural resources. It creates the Sustainable Development Advisory Council and provides for the appointment of an Environmental Commissioner. Parts II and VIII discuss in detail the principles of environmental management and the process of environmental assessment, respectively.

A complete list of environmental laws and policies in Namibia can be found here.

Additional details on Namibian environmental policies can be accessed through the official website of Ministry of Environment and Tourism.





1. The current Constitution of Namibia can be accessed here.