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Eritrea

  • Constitution of the State of Eritrea, 1952
  • Constitution of the State of Eritrea, 1997

Eritrea's Constitution of 19521, in its Article 10 regarding Economic and Social development, states that : "(2) The State shall work to bring about a balanced and sustainable development throughout the country, and shall use all available means to ensure all citizens to improve their livelihood in a sustainable manner, through their development. (3)The State shall have the responsibility to regulate all land, water and natural resources and to ensure their management in a balanced and sustainable manner and in the interest of the present and future generations; and to create the right conditions for securing the participation of the people to safeguard the environment." The Constitution of 19971 repeats that statement.

The Environment Proclamation of 1996 establishes the framework for protecting Eritrea's environment and enhancing sustainable development. It creates the Eritrean Agency for the Environment and states its powers and functions. The Proclamation also outlines the basic instruments of environmental protection and sustainable development and addresses monitoring and enforcement.

Eritrea developed a National Environmental Management Plan in 1995 and acceded to the UNFCCC. The country communicates regular information relating to its commitments under the Convention in the report The State of Eritrea. The document is published by the Ministry of Land, Water and Environment and outlines country policies and actions in the areas of greenhouse gas mitigation, climate change, and climate awareness, education and training.

Additional information on environmental issues in Eritrea can be found through the official website of the United Nations Development Programme.





1. The 1952 Constitution of Eritrea can be found here.
2. The 1997 Constitution is available here.