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Swaziland
  • The Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland Act 2005

Swaziland's Constitution1 of 2005 addresses environmental protection and preservation. It states that every person must protect the environment for present and future generations and that the Government is responsible for ensuring a holistic approach to environmental preservation and putting in place the appropriate environmental regulatory framework. Chapter XII is mainly providing for Land, Minerals, Water and Environment. Article 16 states that :

"(1) Every person shall promote the protection of the environment for the present and future generations.
(2) Urbanisation or industrialisation shall be undertaken with due respect for the environment.
(3) The Government shall ensure a holistic and comprehensive approach to environmental preservation and shall put in place an appropriate environmental regulatory framework."

Article 217 makes a reference to sustainability of natural resources management for environmental protection.

The Environment Authority Act of 1992 creates the Swaziland Environment Authority with powers to establish standards and guidelines for environmental management, to assist in related policy formulation, and to coordinate activities of all bodies concerned with environmental matters, among other functions. The Swaziland Environment Authority is the entity responsible for preparing reports on the state of the national environment and for conducting environmental impact assessments. The annual State of Environment Report addresses, within national circumstances, issues such as land use and energy, water resources, climate, forestry, waste and urban environment. Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) are mandatory and are undertaken before any project commences in order to identify the impact of proposed activities, formulate mitigation plans, and ensure that environmental concerns are incorporated into the project's design. Details on the EIA process can be found here. EIA guidelines can be found here.

The Environment Management Act of 2002 establishes a framework for environmental protection and sustainable natural resource management. It establishes the Swaziland Environment Fund and designates the Environment Authority as the body responsible for monitoring the Act's implementation.

Swaziland's National Environmental Policy promotes the protection, conservation and enhancement of the environment as well as the attainment of sustainable development.

Additional information on legislation and other environmental matters can be accessed through the official website of Swaziland's Environment Authority.





1. The current Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland can be found on the World Intellectual Property Organization's website.