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Spain
  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain, 1978

The Constitution of Spain1, 1978, sets the basis of Spanish environmental policies in its 45th Article, as following:

“(1) Everyone has the right to enjoy an environment suitable for the development of the person, as well as the duty to preserve it.

(2) The public authorities shall watch over a rational use of all natural resources with a view to protecting and improving the quality of life and preserving and restoring the environment, by relying on an indispensable collective solidarity.

(3) For those who break the provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph, criminal or, where applicable, administrative sanctions shall be imposed, under the terms established by the law, and they shall be obliged to repair the damage caused.”

The Spanish environmental legislation is much influenced by European laws. One important act opening up for the adoption or modification of other acts and policies in national and regional levels in Spain was the Act 27/2006. This act regulates the rights of accessing to environmental information, public participation, and accessing to justice in environmental material, and was approved in 2006. The act is regulated by EU directive 2003/4/EC, and 2003/35/EC.

Information on Spain’s environmental legislation can be accessed through the Government’s official website and through the Food and Agriculture Organization Legal Office’s website.





1. The Constitution of Spain, 1978, can be accessed on the Senate's website.